Tuesday, 26 January 2021

Bunkers of Schönholzer Heide

During one of our strolls through Berlin’s interesting, diverse landscapes we went to discover Schönholzer Heide in the district of Pankow. This park was initially created for Queen Elisabeth Christine, wife of Frederich the Great, in the middle of the 18th century. During World War II there was a bunker complex built in the park, some of which were used by civilians during the bombings raids on Berlin in the 1940’s. During this time the park was also the location of Berlin’s second biggest ‘Zwangsarbeiter’ camp (forced labour camp). The majority of these forced labourers were foreign prisoners from Nazi occupied countries. After the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 the park was just inside the East Berlin border wall. Since the fall of the Wall in 1989 the park is now accessible to all Berliners and visitors.

Our primary objectives on this excursion was to pay our respects at the Soviet Memorial, find the oldest remaining section of the Wall still standing, locate the bunkers and look for Cemetery 6.


Berlin Wall

 

This is the oldest existing piece of the Berlin Wall. This section is just over 80m in length. It was forgotten about after the Wall came down, only to be ‘rediscovered’ a few years ago. It is the original, first generation brick wall from 1961, built using bricks from buildings that had been destroyed during the war!

 

Found the first bunker

 

We found the first bunker we were looking for. There was a lot of concrete and remnants from the bunker complex strewn around this portion of the park.

 


 
“Luna” Bunker (both pictures)


This bunker complex was built for civilians in World War II. It was named the Luna bunker because the old name of the park was Luna Park. Today this relic left over from World War II is covered in graffiti. With our torch we looked in to the bunker where you can still clearly see the interior rooms.

Friedhof 6

 

This cemetery remains somewhat a mystery. It is unkept and quiet overgrown. It is thought that either forced labourers, and/or civilians killed during bombing raids, or during the ensuing chaos of the Battle of Berlin, are buried here. Not to be mistaken for the orderly and well-maintained cemetery nearby which is filled almost exclusively with bombing raid victims from the Spring of ‘45, cemetery 6 is unkept and has no railing, gate or signage. Only for some gravestones, mainly from the 70’s, in the undergrowth one would not know that this was a graveyard at all. It is thought that the headstones from the 70’s and 80’s were descendants of those buried in the unmarked cemetery 6. This little-known and not well documented site is worthy of further investigation and remembrance.

 

Soviet War Memorial

 

Next we went to pay our respects to the fallen Soviet soldiers who died in the Battle for Berlin. This is the largest Soviet cemetery in Europe outside of Russia. An estimated 13.200 soldiers are buried here. It is the 3rd largest Soviet memorial in Berlin. Around the memorial inner wall you can see 100 bronze panels. Written on these bronze panels are the names of some of the fallen soldiers buried here, only 20% of whom could be identified. A very moving memorial and well worth a visit when you are in Berlin.

Thursday, 8 August 2019

The Annual Fat Tire/Insider Tour BBQ 2019


This year we had our annual BBQ get-together at Tempelhofer Feld – a former airport that has been turned into a public park. Built in the 1920s, it has a rich history: used by the Nazis in WWII, it was also the focal point of the Berlin Airlift of 1948–49. Shortly after the closure of the airport in 2008, the space was re-opened to the public in the new form of the Tempelhofer Park. It covers 355 hectares of the site of the former Tempelhof Airport, including its buildings and surrounding land, making it Berlin's largest city park, not to mention the largest inner-city open space in the world. 

Photo by Ciarán O'Connell
    
Today, the area has a six-kilometre cycling, skating and jogging trail, a 2.5-hectare BBQ area, various dog-runs covering around four hectares, former airplane runways where people can bike and fly kites, and an enormous picnic area for all visitors. They even have an urban gardening section where locals can grow their own veg in raised beds. The perfect place for a burger and a beer with our friends and colleagues!

Monday, 15 April 2019

Berlin's Russian Embassy

Insider guides are always exploring. After many years of guiding tours all around the the Russian embassy, we finally got access to the inside of the building.

The Russian Embassy

Originally built in the 18th century as a palace for a high-ranking Prussian military officer, it was bought in 1837 by Tsar Nicholas I. As foreign property ownership was not allowed at the time in Prussia, he conveniently became an honorary citizen of Berlin. During WWII the building was used by Alfred Rosenberg, head of the Ministry for Occupied Eastern Territories. In 1942 it was destroyed during Allied bombing. Rebuilt in 1949-51, its grandiose scale reflects the status and ambitions of what was then a burgeoning world power.

The Domicil Hall

 The entrance leads to the very impressive Domicil Hall, adorned with this fabulous stained-glass window representing the main tower (Spasskaya Tower) of Moscow’s Kremlin.


Dome of Domicil Hall
  
The hall is lit by daylight coming through the glass top of the dome that crowns the building. It reaches the same height as the Brandenburg Gate.


The Great Hall
  
The photo above shows the main meeting room for international negotiations. It was here that the Allies sat across from the Soviets in 1954 and 1972. It is also where Presidents Yeltsin and Kohl met in 1994 to agree the withdrawal of all Russian military forces from the former East Germany. 


The Ambassador’s Salon
  
This is the room where Chancellor Merkel and President Putin met for a discreet conversation some years ago.


The Gentlemen's Salon

Lamp Detail from Gentleman's Salon

 The Gentlemen’s Salon is used as a reception room for guests. The lamps on the wall come from Hitler’s Reich Chancellery. The eagle-shaped feet of the lamps used to look upward, but after their relocation to the embassy they were turned upside down in order to symbolise the Soviet victory over fascism.

The Hunting Salon
  
The room shown above is adorned with a traditional laquered painting of a hunting scene originating from the famous Palekh workshop in Russia. One of the largest Palekh paintings in the world, it was made especially for this room. Stuffed animals and hunting trophies belonging to former Soviet ambassadors are also on display in this room.


The Concert Hall

 This hall can seat up to 400 guests for cultural events. The embassy hosts many theatre productions, classical music recitals, and visiting groups from the Bolshoi. To the left is access to a large veranda for socialising in the summer evenings.


Insider Guides

This photo was taken by our host and guide for the tour, the absolutely brilliant Vladimir. We were delighted to have gained access and insights into one of Berlin’s most iconic and historical buildings. It did not disappoint!


Thursday, 21 March 2019

Insiders Visit Zossen Bunker Complex

The Insider guides went on a guided tour of the bunker complex in Zossen, which is situated one hour’s drive south of Berlin in the sleepy town of Buecherstadt Wünsdorf. The town has some interesting history: this is where Germany’s first mosque was built, opening in 1915 to serve as a place of worship for the Muslim prisoners captured during World War One. In March 1935 the Oberkommando Des Heeres (OKH), the High Command of the Army, located to Zossen. In 1938 the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), the High Command of the Armed Forces, followed, also building their headquarters in Zossen. The German Olympic team even trained at the military sports complex in Zossen before the 1936 Summer Olympics. As part of the Potsdam Agreement after World War Two, military installations had to be dismantled, meaning many of the bunkers were destroyed by the Soviets in 1947. The location was of such strategic importance to the Soviets that they rebuilt and expanded the bunker complex during the Cold War.



Entrance



You can only walk through the immense bunker complex as part of a guided tour.



"Maybach 1" 


The photo above shows how the bunkers look today, having been partially destroyed in 1947.
“Maybach 1”, as this bunker complex was known, was built between 1937 and 1939. What looked from the air to be a normal housing complex was actually twelve solidly built bunkers in which the OKW had their HQ during World War Two, and from which the OKW ran army operations throughout Europe, planning operations such as the invasion of the Soviet Union, codenamed “Operation Barbarossa”. This is also where members of the German resistance worked, including people such as Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and General Eduard Wagner, who plotted to assassinate Hitler.



The entry to the Panzir Bunker (Cut and cover)
Tunnel in the
Panzir Bunker 



The two photos above show the “Panzir” bunker, which was built in 1979 by the Soviets. Known as a “cut and cover” bunker, it is constructed in such a way that half the bunker lies above ground with the other half lying underground. It was used for communications and physical excercise for Soviet soldiers and officers.


"Nickel" Bunker


This photo shows the entrance into the “Nickel” bunker, which was the most important Soviet communications bunker during the Cold War. It monitored and tracked all civilian and military aircraft flying over Western Europe and Scandinavia. This gave the Soviets valuable real-time data on Allied war planes. They had the information needed to decide upon a given action, whether that be a preemptive strike, or a counter-strike. When the Russians left this bunker in 1994, they took all their high-tech equipment with them, so that it didn’t fall into “enemy” hands.




Werner, our guide, tells us about the strategic importance of the complex; the Insider guides absorb the information.

Walking into the final bunker on our tour, known during the Nazi period as “Zeppelin” and during the Cold War as “Ranet”.



The two photos above show us walking into the “Zeppelin/Ranet” bunker, which was built in 1937-39. It was the communications bunker and post office of the High Command of the German armed forces during World War Two. The bunker was manned around the clock. It was built 20m deep underground and during the Cold War the Soviets expanded the bunker to make it nuclear, biologically and chemically (NBC) protected from attacks.




Werner shows us how this bunker connected the Soviets to all the communication hubs around Europe during the Cold War – a fascinating place!






The last photo is of a section of the pneumatic post system used in the Nazi complex to link Maybach 1, Maybach 2 and the Zeppelin bunker. The cylinders put in these tubes reached a speed of 9m per second, providing a secure means of communicating rapidly between the various operational bunkers of the OKW.

We thoroughly enjoyed our tour through the bunker complex in Wünsdorf, and would recommend the tour to visitors to Berlin as a potential day trip out of the city.
It is easy to get to Zossen by train or with a private vehicle. For further information, you can visit their website here:



Friday, 14 December 2018

Insiders Visit Theresienstadt


Insider guides, and friends, visited the former Theresienstadt ghetto and concentration camp recently. Here an overview.



Theresienstadt was set up as a concentration camp in November 1941 when the first transport of Czech Jews were sent there. German and Austrian Jews arrived from June 1942. Danish and Dutch Jews followed in numbers from early 1943.



The inmates in the ghetto initially lived with the local population, until they were forced out completely, and then the ghetto was then self-administered by the Jewish people themselves.



Inside the camp the administration of the site was run by the SS, and the first camp commandant was Siegfried Seidl (executed in 1947). There were approximately 33,000 deaths inside the concentration camp and ghetto. Many others were sent to their deaths in Auschwitz, Treblinka, and other concentration camps.




In the barracks there were horrific conditions, massive overcrowding, and disease was rampant. Throughout the barracks, typhoid scarlet fever, lice were prevalent. There were untrained nurses to help with the sick, but with all the deportations taking place by 1944 the nurses were looking after 60-65 patients each, and working 18-20 hour a day. The inmates were working about 69 hours a week, which also took its toll.





Hygiene was a problem for the inmates, very rarely could they have warm water, showers were almost always cold, and cleaning the clothes was done with the steamer. They had to put their clothes back on whilst still damp, which was bearable in the Summer but torture in the Winter.



The above statute depicts the life in the camp, children, the elderly, families - a very stark reminder of how fragile life was/is.



Despite all the efforts of the Council of Elders, and the camp ghetto inhabitants, to make the best of an atrocious situation, living conditions in the camp were harsh. There was very little food, medical supplies and basic services. With massive overcrowding the death rate was comparable to other concentration camps like Buchenwald or Dachau. The death rate was so great that a crematorium south of the ghetto was built where around 200 bodies could be burned per day.



At Theresienstadt there were some pretty powerful memorials dedicated to the people who lived, suffered and and died there. The inmates thought that if they made this place a viable economic space that they could be spared, not knowing that the plan was to liquidate the whole camp and make the ghetto of Terezín a German settlement. They were doomed. Still, around 23,000 survived from the approximately 150,000 that went through the camp.



An amazingly interesting trip. Insiders learnt much new information, to compliment their Berlin tours. Where next?


Monday, 3 December 2018

Berlin Basics – 7 Fool-Proof Ways to Fit in



Welcome to Berlin! If you are new to the city, or it’s been a while since your last visit you may notice things are a little different here than other European cities. Here are seven basic tips to get you navigating the capital like a local.


Transportation


1. Obey the Ampelmann



This is the Ampelmann. Isn’t he cute? He was an East German invention designed to make street-safety fun for children.

When he’s green and happy, like the picture above, it means it is safe to cross the street. But when he is red and sticking his arms out, stay off the road.



The trouble is, that the widest streets have two sets of Ampelmanns (Ampelmen? Amplemänner?) – one that will take you to a median between two lanes of traffic, and the other that will take you to the far side of the street. In many cases, these men are not synchronized, so it is key to obey the Ampelmann that is closest to you, and not the one on the far side of the street.

2. Stay out of the Bicycle Lane!

Most streets in Berlin have a separate cycle lane – sometimes it’s a separate lane indicated on the road, and other times it’s a dedicated portion of the sidewalk, often marked, or a different colour. But this doesn’t always seem to be enough and cyclists here have free rein. They’re pretty nonchalant about little things like, darting in between cars stopped at traffic lights, running reds when they think they can get away with it, and rolling through the rest of the pedestrian-designated sidewalk, even when they have their own. But pedestrians beware! Never, ever (EVER!) step into the bicycle lane! Not only do the cyclists get cranky (a bit rich, I know), but a pedestrian hit by a cyclist in the bike lane is considered to be at fault.

3. Always have buy a ticket before you get on the train, bus or tram

It’s oh so ever tempting. There’s one little ticket box at the head of the train platform, and nothing to prevent you simply from getting on the train: no attendants, no turnstiles, no one to see that you haven’t duly paid out your €2.80. The train’s right here and the next one won’t come for four whole minutes…. You could just jump on the train…

But it’s not worth it!

Rather than invest in bulky infrastructure like ticket takers and gates, BVG (the Berlin Transit Authority) feels it’s better to pay plain-clothes ticket checkers. These super-sneaky individuals climb on the train, dressed as everyday people, pretend to look bored and stare at the ceiling, until… Wham. As soon as the doors lock everyone in with them, out come the official IDs and ticket scanners, and “Fahrscheine Bitte, Tickets, please!”

The team splits up and moves to opposite ends of the cars, then work towards the middle. Most people nonchalantly dig their out passes, but a few will start to look panicky, checking and re-checking places they know no ticket exists… and a few try to get out of the way… but you’re stuck on a train, being sandwiched in – there’s nowhere to go! Rule breakers are hauled off the train at the next station for a good old-fashioned public shaming and a fine of €60. This happens often enough that it is unnecessarily risky to try and ride without a pass.


Lifestyle


4. Suits are Highly Overrated

Berlin’s dress code trends strongly toward casual. Jeans are easily the norm, as are flat shoes for the ladies, and scarves are less a fashion accessory than a thing to keep your neck warm when it’s chilly. It’s a very rare thing to see a suit, or even what we might call ‘business-casual’ when out and about – even those getting out of the Mercedes and Audis keep it simple.

Wear what you want, wear what is comfortable. Wear you!

5. A Park or Sidewalk Café is the Perfect Place to Spend an Afternoon

It’s 2pm on Wednesday, the sun is shining and the weather is nice and warm. You might think that it sucks that you have to be stuck behind your desk… But not so in Berlin! Sunny, warm days lure everyone out from their offices and computers and into the plethora of parks and cafes that blanket the city. Berlin is definitely not a place for those who live to work, and good weather is not to be squandered. So enjoy a beer or a coffee under the shade of the chestnut trees, or to really assimilate, get your FKK on in the Tiergarten.



Food and Drink


6. Pork Products are the Cornerstone of a Berliner Diet

Pork products of various shapes, sizes and colours are omnipresent. And cheap. You can enjoy cured ham for breakfast, Curry Wurst for lunch and breaded schnitzel for dinner, all for €20 or less. For those who are concerned about the vitamin deficiency that will surely result from such a diet, fear not – most of these dishes come with sauerkraut, or potatoes… or both! So the odds of getting scurvy will be minimized even if your mid-section won’t be.

7. Beer!

Another waistline expander is Germany’s ubiquitous beverage. Beer is cheap, and it is everywhere. For less than a euro you can buy half a litre of beer at the grocery store. It is marginally more expensive in cafes and restaurants, but still cheaper than water or coffee. It usually comes in small size (0.3 litres), but really, it’s more appropriate to go for a normal one (0.5 litres)… and you can start at lunchtime… and drink it pretty much anywhere.





Wednesday, 7 November 2018

Insider Stasi Archive Excursion


This Monday Insider guides took an excursion to the Stasi Archive HQ.

The former East German Secret Police amassed an immense and intricately designed system of surveillance on its population, and those visitng East Germany. There where a total of 111km of files, archived all over East Germany. Just under half of the total is still located in the archive in the former Stasi HQ today.

We had access to to the high security area where the actual files have been stored, all very exciting. Still, today on average 40,000 people request to see their file annually, and since 1992 there have been over 7 million applications to view individual files.

 
The former archive still has a functioning Paternoster elevator, which is not supposed to be used.....aber Spaß muss sein!

Below, the filing cabinets found in the archives across East Germany with the index cards in them. These were also known as pasternoster search devices. There were over 5000 different ways to register a person, either by last name, or address, or area code where that person was registered. There were 43 million cards in these cabinets!

We also saw a reconstruction how the archive was actually found. It wasn’t in a good state with files not properly filed, and the quality of the paper was so bad that it has a shelf life of 50—70 years, so it is very important to preserve these deteriorating files today. The archive is now digitising the files, but with so many to be digitally copied this will take some time!
 
 

Our excellent guide there, Linda, informed us how and why people were investigated, and why files would be opened on individuals, and how complex the system was.  The files have been opened to the public for many reasons, some wanted to just to find out why they were spied on, others wanted to find out if their paranoia was justified, were they bugged, watched, and who was informing on them.

Anyone interested in the Cold War, and in particular the methods of East German's Secret Police, will find a visit here fascinating! For more info, see: https://www.bstu.de/en/